Step 4: Leaf Scale

The leaves were typical of healthy apples, fully unfurled, pubescent and appropriately sized (small for apples around here). There were no signs of disease, which would be expected as foliar diseases of apples are relatively uncommon in Denver due to low humidity. New growth was vigorous and there were no signs of damage to any leaves. There were also no signs of flowers, spent or emerging.

All offshoots from the main branches were pruned, presumably to allow for maximum air flow, with leaves only present near the branch tips. Watersprouts and suckers had also been consistently removed.